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Tumors Therapy by Non-IgG Antibodies

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In recent years, antibody-based immunotherapy seems to become a new treatment option for oncological patients. Among all antibody isotypes, IgG antibody is the most widely studied. But there are many deficiencies of IgG therapeutic antibody that limit its application. Therefore, non-IgG antibodies are receiving more and more attention in cancer immunotherapy. Based on years of experience and construction, Creative Biolabs has gained a good reputation in antibody development service. Here we are proud to provide a wide range of non-IgG therapeutic antibodies services to universal customers.

Background of Non-IgG Therapeutic Antibodies Target Tumors

Non-IgG Therapeutic Antibodies Target Tumors. Advances in cancer treatment have been made along many frontiers. The development of new cytotoxic agents, radiation therapy techniques and surgical techniques has improved the survival and quality of life of cancer patients. Unfortunately, despite this great progress, cancer treatment failures occur every day, and oncologists still encounter many challenges such as drug resistance and treatment-related toxic effects. Limitations on the effectiveness and tolerance of therapy have driven researchers to develop new therapeutic strategies to help decrease treatment toxicity and improve survival for cancer patients. In recent years, antibody-based immunotherapy has become a promising treatment for cancers, which has proven to be very effective in some types of cancers. Compared to IgG antibodies, non-IgG antibodies have received increasing attention in the immunotherapy of tumors in recent years due to their many advantages over IgG. Several non-IgG antibodies against various types of tumors have been identified to effectively inhibit the development of cancer and improve the survival rate of patients.

IgA Antibody Targets Tumors

IgA is the most abundant antibody class at mucosal surfaces where it serves as the first line of defense and protects against pathogens. IgA usually exists in the form of polymeric molecular with two subclasses (IgA1 and IgA2), which distribute differentially between the systemic and mucosal immune systems. The advantages of IgA antibody over IgG antibody in cancer treatment lie in (i) immunotherapy using IgA antibodies offers the potential to attack certain common tumors (e.g., lung cancer or colon cancer) from the luminal surface; (ii) IgA antibodies enhance Fc receptor-mediated killing mechanisms by improving recruitment of neutrophil as the most populous tumor-cytolytic cell population. In recent years, IgA antibodies targeting epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), human leukocyte antigen class II, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and CD20 have been demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of corresponding tumors. For example, the IgA1 antibody against EpCAM proved to be more effective than IgG1 antibody derivative in recruiting neutrophils to kill EpCAM-positive, solid tumor cells. Moreover, anti-EGFR IgA2 containing the variable regions of cetuximab significantly decreased the number of metastasis in immunocompetent lung metastasis model. These results indicate that IgA as a therapeutic antibody has great appeal in the treatment of cancers.

IgM Antibody Targets Tumors

IgM is the most evolutionary conserved antibody isotype that presents in all vertebrates, which is also the earliest isotype expressed during immune development. IgM is known to be the first line of defense against various antigens which is mainly responsible for recognizing and eliminating infectious particles as well as removing transformed cells. In the field of tumor biology, native IgM has a direct cytotoxic effect on tumor cells mainly by recognizing tumor-modified cell surfaces that develop during tumorigenesis and activating complement system to destroy nascent transformed cells. In addition, IgM antibodies can target some cancer cell markers more efficiently than IgG class antibodies with higher avidity. Screening antibodies isolated from cancer patients revealed that almost all of the identified tumor-specific antibodies belong to the IgM class. And these isolated tumor-specific IgM antibodies have been shown to induce tumor cells apoptosis, suggesting that IgM antibody can be used as a therapeutic antibody for the treatment of cancers.

Several functions of natural IgM and adaptive IgM.Fig.2 Several functions of natural IgM and adaptive IgM. (Díaz-Zaragoza, 2015)

IgE Antibody Targets Tumors

IgE is the primary antibody implicating to anti-parasitic infection and allergic reactions with many properties that may be beneficial for cancer therapy. Cancer treatment based on IgE antibody belongs to the rapidly growing field of AllergoOncology, which aims to reveal IgE-mediated immune response against cancer cells in order to enhance the understanding of its biology and to develop novel IgE-based treatment options against malignant diseases. The immunohistochemistry study on the distribution of the antibody classes in head and neck cancer has shown that IgE antibody is the most abundant isotype in the tumor tissues. Tumor-specific serum IgE antibody levels are significantly elevated in patients with pancreatic cancer compared to healthy controls. Importantly, these IgE antibodies induce antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) against pancreatic cancer cells. In patients with multiple myeloma, higher levels of polyclonal IgE antibody in non-allergic individuals are associated with lower disease incidence and longer survival. The presence of IgE effector eosinophils in the blood or peritumoral infiltrates of both hematological and solid malignancies is associated with favorable prognosis, particularly in solid tumors. Furthermore, the incidence of allergies is inversely associated with the risk of certain malignancies such as glioma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and childhood leukemia, especially acute lymphocytic leukemia. In conclusion, IgE antibody plays a potentially natural role in tumor immunosurveillance, at least in certain malignancies.

Scheme of possible IgE-mediated interactions between effector cells and targeted tumor cells.Fig.3 Scheme of possible IgE-mediated interactions between effector cells and targeted tumor cells. (Leoh, 2015)

Our Services for Non-IgG Antibodies Target Tumors

With years of experience in antibodies development for cancer treatment and state-of-the-art technology platforms, Creative Biolabs is committed to providing the best-customized solutions and services for the development of non-IgG antibodies against many types of cancers. We offer non-IgG antibodies development services for the following cancers:


For many years, Creative Biolabs has been working on a variety of antibody development design for a variety of diseases, including cancers. With experienced experts and advanced platforms, we are able to provide excellent antibody design and development services for a variety of cancers. If you are interested in our services, please contact us for more details.

References

  1. Díaz-Zaragoza, M.; et al. Natural and adaptive IgM antibodies in the recognition of tumor-associated antigens of breast cancer. Oncology reports. 2015, 34(3): 1106-1114.
  2. Leoh, L.S.; et al. IgE immunotherapy against cancer. Current topics in microbiology and immunology. 2015, 388: 109-149.

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