Creative Biolabs provides customized non-IgG antibody production and non-IgG receptor and interaction-related services.
Introduction of Receptor
Antibodies play an important role in the immune response. Antibody receptors, also called Fc receptors (FcR), are expressed on various effector cells, such as B cells, T cells, and macrophages. Receptors can recognize and bind to the Fc segment of the antibody, and mediate the phagocytosis and clearance of the antigen. In addition, these receptors are members of the immunoglobulin superfamily and are present in every antibody class. The FcRs of IgG, the most abundant antibody in humans, are called Fcc receptors (FccR). Other non-IgG antibodies have their corresponding receptors.
Classical Non-IgG Receptors
- IgA receptors
- IgD Receptor
- IgE Receptors
- IgM Receptors
- IgY Receptors
Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is the most abundant antibody isotype. IgA plays a vital role in maintaining the homeostasis and immune protection of the mucosal surface. IgA can perform corresponding functions by interacting with a variety of receptors. IgA receptors mainly include IgA Fc receptor I (FcαRI), asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR), Fcα/μR, transferrin receptor 1 (CD71), FcRL4 and DC-SIGN/SIGNR1.
Immunoglobulin D (IgD) is an antigen receptor isotype. IgD and IgM are co-expressed on the surface of many mature B lymphocytes. Additionally, the degree of glycosylation of IgD is relatively high. Studies have shown that the upregulation of IgD-specific receptors (IgD-R) on CD41 T cells may promote their interaction with membrane IgD on B cells. What's more, the interaction of IgD-R and IgD has been shown to play an important regulatory role in T cell and B cell responses.
IgE receptors are inseparable from the immune pathways of allergies and inflammatory diseases. Blocking the combination of IgE and IgE receptors, FcεRI and FcεRII, is an effective way to prevent allergic reactions induced by IgE. In practical applications, mimetic peptides coupled to carrier proteins can be used to develop anti-allergic vaccines to induce anti-IgE antibodies-similar to the current method of using humanized non-allergic anti-IgE monoclonal antibodies as passive vaccines.
Fig.1 IgE receptors. (Ben Mkaddem, 2019)
Polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) is the first studied Fc receptor to bind IgM, and its expression on epithelial cells indicates that IgM is involved in the immune defense of the mucus layer. The interaction of IgM and pIgR leads to the formation of secreted IgM. Moreover, the receptor designated as Fcα/μR can bind IgM and IgA. It is expressed on lymphocytes, follicular dendritic cells and macrophages.
IgY is the main serum antibody of birds and reptiles. In mammals, IgG-related phagocytosis and passive skin allergic reactions mediated by IgG and IgE have also been observed in chickens, indicating that both phagocytosis and allergic reactions are affected by IgY. In vitro, an IgY receptor (CHIR-AB1) has been identified, which can mediate the influx of calcium ions into cells during the process of IgY binding to monocytes.
With years of experience and professional knowledge, Creative Biolabs has been equipped to provide cost-effective non-IgG receptor and interaction-related services to customers all over the world. Please contact us for more details.
- Ben Mkaddem, S.; et al. Understanding Fc receptor involvement in inflammatory diseases: from mechanisms to new therapeutic tools. Frontiers in immunology. 2019, 10: 811.
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