Immunoglobulins (Igs) are proteins produced in response to invasion by foreign pathogens in the body. In humans, five distinct classes have been identified, i.e. IgG, IgM, IgA, IgE, and IgD. In recent years, the research of non-IgG antibodies has attracted much attention due to their distinct advantages in immunotherapy. Here, Creative Biolabs gives a brief introduction to the diagnostic applications of non-IgG antibody isotypes.
Fig.1 Illustration of the different classes of immunoglobulins IgA, IgG, IgD, IgE, IgM. (Batra, 2016)
IgA is the second most abundant antibody in human serum, existing in both monomeric and dimeric forms. It plays an important role in the primary defense against infections, thereby highlighting its potential in disease diagnosis. Xiao et al. (2017) reported high levels of lipoprotein Z (LppZ)-specific IgA in tuberculosis (TB) and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). IgA levels may serve as a complementary marker for detecting TB and LTBI infections, as well as for monitoring disease treatment. Shrestha et al. (2018) reported the development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method for both IgA and IgG antibody detection for diagnosis of Cystoisospora suis infections.
IgM is the largest antibody, and it is the first antibody to appear in response to initial exposure to an antigen. As a result, the detection of specific IgM against a pathogen in the serum of patients is often used to help disease diagnosis based on ELISA methods. For instance, Schaade et al. (2001) reported the use of the Enzygnost Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) ELISA system for the diagnosis of EBV infection based on the determination of virus-specific IgG and IgM antibodies. Besides, as it is synthesized by the fetus, IgM can’t cross the placenta. Therefore, the presence of IgM in the fetus or newborn indicates intrauterine infection and IgM detections are useful for the diagnosis of congenital infections such as Toxoplasmosis, syphilis, rubella, cytomegalovirus infection, and human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) infection.
The main function of IgE is its immune defense against different parasites. Besides, it has an essential role in allergic diseases and is found to be elevated in various autoimmune diseases. It is a golden role to detect IgE antibody by a serological method or by its companion in vivo skin test assay, which simply identifies whether a state of sensitization (IgE antibody positivity) exists in a patient to a particular allergenic specificity. Besides, specific applications of IgE antibodies testing include the diagnosis of different allergic diseases, such as aeroallergen inhalation-induced disease, drug allergy, food allergy, etc.
Besides their potential in disease diagnosis, the use of non-IgG antibodies as therapeutics has become one of the most innovative areas. As an expert in therapeutic antibody research, Creative Biolabs now uses our high-end technologies and rich experience to develop and engineer non-IgG antibodies products with optimized characteristics and performance, meanwhile, providing high-quality custom non-IgG antibody services.
For more detailed information, please feel free to contact us or directly sent us an inquiry.
- Schaade, L.; et al. Application of virus-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgG, and IgA antibody detection with a polyantigenic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of Epstein-Barr virus infections in childhood. Journal of clinical microbiology. 2001, 39(11): 3902-3905.
- Xiao, J.N.; et al. Determination of Lipoprotein Z-Specific IgA in Tuberculosis and Latent Tuberculosis Infection. Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology. 2017, 7: 495.
- Shrestha, A.; et al. Development and application of a recombinant protein-based indirect ELISA for the detection of serum antibodies against Cystoisospora suis in swine. Veterinary Parasitology. 2018, 258: 57-63.
- Batra, J.; Rathore, A. S. Glycosylation of monoclonal antibody products: Current status and future prospects. Biotechnology progress. 2016, 32(5): 1091-1102.
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