Therapeutic antibodies are mainly used for the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. In addition to the common IgG antibodies, non-IgG antibodies have received more and more attention to the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases due to their unique advantages in recent years. Creative Biolabs is a world leader in the field of antibody development. With our extensive experience and advanced platform, we are therefore confident in providing the best non-IgG development services for many types of diseases.
Background of Therapeutic Non-IgG Antibodies
Antibodies are highly specific, naturally evolved molecules that play a central role in humoral immunity. They constitute the main serological line of defense by which the immune system recognizes and neutralizes or eliminates foreign organisms, including bacteria, parasites, viruses, and fungi. Antibodies have already been used as therapeutics to treat infectious diseases in the form of the patient or animal-derived sera since the late 19th century. With the invention of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in the 1970s, in addition to infectious diseases, the idea of antibody therapy specifically targeting tumor-specific antigens has received increasing attention.
There are five main classes of antibodies with diverse functions: immunoglobulin (Ig) A, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. Among them, IgG is the most studied and widely used isotype of a therapeutic antibody. Compared to IgG antibodies, non-IgG antibodies (IgA, IgE, and IgM) have shown great promise in the treatment of some diseases because of their advantages over IgG antibodies. So far, many non-IgG antibodies have been applied for the clinic and have achieved good results in some diseases treatment.
After cardiovascular diseases, cancer represents the second most common cause of death all over the world. In addition to surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, antibody-based therapies seem to become a new treatment option for selected oncological patients. In cancer therapy, the purpose of antibody administration is to induce the direct or indirect destruction of cancer cells by specifically targeting tumor antigens or the vasculature that nourishes the tumor. To date, many types of tumor-associated antigens have been identified and developed as targets for cancer immunotherapy, which include carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)mucin 1, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), HER2/neu, CD20, etc.
Today, many non-IgG antibodies against these tumor-associated antigens have been produced and used in the treatment of cancers. For example, IgA Her2 mAbs can significantly reduce tumor growth and effectively kill tumor cells , suggesting their great potential in the treatment of breast cancer. In addition, IgE and IgM against some tumor-associated antigens have also been proved to be effective in killing tumor cells.
Infectious diseases are caused by the invasion and proliferation of viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites in human organs and tissues. The management of this disease aims to cure infected patients and avoid the contamination of the surrounding environment and the direct transfer of the source of infection, thus avoiding the spread of infection.
Antibody-based treatment for infectious diseases has a history of more than 120 years and plays a key role in the prevention and control of infectious diseases. In addition to the widely used IgG antibodies, non-IgG antibodies have received increasing attention in the treatment of infectious diseases in recent years due to their unique advantages. For example, dimeric IgA can neutralize viruses in cells by cross-viral particles and interfere with viral replication or assembly, and IgE has an unparalleled role in parasites and allergic reactions. Numerous studies have shown that these non-IgG antibodies have gained excellent therapeutic effects in the clinical treatment of infectious diseases.
Fig.2 Therapeutic potential of IgA monoclonal antibodies. (Bakema, 2011)
Inflammation is a local protective response to microbial invasion or injury. It must be fine-tuned and precisely regulated since that deficient or excessive inflammatory response can lead to inflammatory diseases, causing considerable damage to tissues and organs. Many inflammatory conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis, are not curable, so there is an urgent need to develop effective therapeutic agents.
Non-IgG antibodies are other types of immunoglobulins other than IgG, which have a critical role in anti-infection and are also effective in inflammation treatment. In addition to its role in immunoprotection, IgA can also mediate both inflammatory and anti-inflammatory effects by binding to corresponding receptors. Besides, IgM also inhibits inflammatory responses and plays an important role in regulating excessive inflammation mediated by innate and adaptive mechanisms. The anti-inflammatory effect of IgA and IgM can be used as a therapeutic strategy for tissue damage caused by inflammatory diseases.
Allergy is generally proceeded by sensitization that results from allergen exposure and subsequently, allergic symptoms can occur when re-exposure to allergens, leading to allergic diseases. Evidence has shown that antibodies have great potential in the treatment of allergic diseases, especially IgA.
Studies revealed that serum IgA levels were closely related to allergen resistance and sensitization. Individuals with lower IgA levels perform a higher prevalence of allergic disease. Patients suffering from allergy symptoms were effectively alleviated after administered IgA antibody. It was suggested that lgA could be administered at favorable dosing times as a therapeutic drug for allergic diseases in the clinic.
With years of experience in antibody development and state-of-the-art technology platforms, Creative Biolabs has been working on antibody development for a variety of diseases treatment. We provide excellent non-IgG antibodies design and development services against multiple diseases. Beyond that, our professional teams offer related comprehensive non-IgG antibody products and services to worldwide clients both academically and commercially. If you are interested in our services, please contact us for more details.
- Bakema, J.E.; van Egmond, M. Immunoglobulin A: The next generation of therapeutic antibodies? mAbs. 2011, 3(4): 352-361.
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