With years of experience in the development of IgE-related research, Creative Biolabs is pleased to make a brief introduction of IgE-related diseases to our customers.
IgE is an immunoglobulin that has been proved to be closely related to a variety of diseases and immune response processes. The structure of IgE molecules is similar to that of other types of antibodies. They are composed of two classic light chains and two heavy chains. The main difference lies in the sequence of the constant region of the heavy chain. It is worth noting that the allergen binds to the variable regions located in the heavy and light chains. Unlike IgG, IgE contains 4 heavy chain constant domains. The Fc fragment of the IgE molecule can bind to two types of immunoglobulin Fc receptors, namely the high-affinity IgE receptor (FCεRI) and the low-affinity IgE receptor (FCεRII). The binding sites of FCεRI and FCεRII are located near the Cε3 domain of the IgE molecule but in different parts. IgE molecules are mainly produced by plasma cells in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues. Most of the IgE produced binds to FcεRI expressed by mast cells and basophils. Currently, IgE is important in allergic diseases and immune responses to parasitic infections.
IgE Related Diseases
The retention time of IgE in plasma is approximately one day, but receptor-bound IgE can exist in tissues for several weeks. Moreover, the combination of IgE and FcεRI can increase the survival rate of cells, and upon contact with specific allergens will promote the release of active mediators stored in specific cells such as mast cells and basophil granules, resulting in symptoms of type 1 hypersensitivity. Additionally, the two receptors of IgE are expressed on antigen-presenting cells, which are essential for promoting the presentation of allergens to allergen-specific T cells. In short, IgE has unique characteristics among immunoglobulin isotypes and plays a central role in acute allergic reactions and chronic inflammatory allergic diseases.
Fig.1 Diseases with anti-IgE therapy. (Iannelli, 2021)
Classical IgE Related Diseases
- Allergic Diseases
- Hyper IgE Syndrome
- IgE in Chronic Asthma
- IgE in Chronic Urticaria
- IgE in Autoimmune Disorders
IgE-mediated chronic diseases are often treated with antihistamines and other anti-inflammatory drugs, unfortunately, many patients do not respond to these treatments. Since IgE was identified as the main stimulus in the inflammatory response, the development of drugs targeting IgE has flourished. One of the anti-IgE monoclonal antibodies has been approved for use in severe allergic asthma and chronic urticaria. This monoclonal antibody is a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody designed to bind to the IgE of the Fc part. The drug is administered subcutaneously with slow absorption. The serum concentration reached a peak after one week, and the half-life was approximately 26 days.
In addition to the recombinant monoclonal antibody mentioned above, more and more monoclonal antibodies are being developed for IgE related diseases. As a supplier of customized services, Creative Biolabs can provide customers around the world with help for the research of IgE related diseases. Please feel free to contact us for more details.
- Iannelli, M.; et al. Long term treatment with omalizumab in adolescent with refractory solar urticaria. Italian journal of pediatrics. 2021, 47(1): 1-4.
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