Infectious diseases are a major burden of public health and economic stability of societies all over the world. The use of antibodies in the treatment and prophylaxis of infectious diseases has a long history as these molecules play a critical role in directing the effector mechanisms of the immune system against the pathogens they recognize. Experienced in the field of antibody development for over 10 years, Creative Biolabs now is able to provide the best services about non-IgG antibodies applied for infectious disease treatment.
Background of Infectious Diseases Treatment
Infectious diseases are generally caused by microorganisms including bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses, which once have been one of the leading causes of death, disability, and human health security challenges for centuries. These organisms cause different types and extents of damage to the host's organs and/or systems when their causative agents gain entry into a host through a variety of routes. Naturally, the host's elaborate defense mechanism, immune system, fights against infectious agents and eliminates them. Infectious diseases will occur or emerge in instances when the immune system fails to eliminate pathogenic infectious agents.
Antibodies are the mainstay of humoral immune responses that provide both target recognition and the signal for effector functions and play an important role in the process of anti-microbial infection. Antibodies were once preferred for certain life-threatening infectious diseases treatment before the advent of antibiotics. With the increasing prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and the emergence of new infectious diseases, the use of therapeutic antibodies for infectious diseases may have new implications. Currently, quantities of monoclonal antibodies have been shown benign therapeutic effects on infectious diseases in vitro and even in preclinical and clinical. In addition to the widely used IgG antibodies, non-IgG antibodies have received increasing attention in the treatment of infectious diseases in recent years due to their unique advantages. Nowadays, many non-IgG antibodies have been used in the treatment of infectious diseases and have achieved favorable effects.
IgA Antibody for Infectious Diseases Treatment
Mucosal sites, where IgA is the most prominent antibody isotype, are critical interfaces that separate the interior of the body and the outside world. At the mucosal immune site, there must be a balance between effective immune defense against pathogenic microorganisms and avoidance of responses against commensal microbial and environmental antigens. As the first line of defense in mucosal immunity, IgA forms an anti-septic covering for the mucosa to inhibit the adhesion of pathogenic microorganisms. In addition, IgA can agglutinate microbes and interfere with bacterial movement by interacting with their flagella and neutralizing bacterial products such as enzymes and toxins. Although antibodies generally provide little protection against intracellular pathogens, dimeric IgA has the ability to neutralize intracellular viruses by intersecting viral particles and interfering with viral replication or assembly when the viruses pass through infected epithelial cells. The IgA-virus complexes subsequently are excreted into the lumen then eliminated by the immune system. Specific anti-viral IgA on the basolateral surface of epithelial cells can reduce viral titers of rotavirus, influenza, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Therefore, IgA antibodies play an important role in the prevention and control of pathogenic microorganisms infection.
IgM Antibody Targeting Infectious Diseases Treatment
The IgM isotype is one of the major immunoglobulin (Ig) classes in the body. IgM is also the earliest membrane-associated Ig expressed during B cell ontogenesis and the earliest secreted antibody during an antigen-specific immune response. IgM is the first immune molecule binding to membrane-derived epitopes in the infections with bacterial or viral pathogens. Patients lacking lgM are highly susceptible to recurrent infections of bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. Reconstitution of immunodeficient animals with lgM can obviously restore the ability of these animals to control certain infections, indicating that lgM plays a significant role in the control of infectious diseases. lgM confers protection against invading pathogens through direct neutralization of pathogens, activation of classical complement pathways, opsonization of pathogens, phagocytosis by dendritic cell and macrophage, and transportation of antigen to lymphoid organs for initiating the immune responses by innate immune cells. Moreover, IgM can also regulate the immune response to pathogens by influencing the T cell polarization and B cell class-switch.
IgE Antibody Targeting Infectious Diseases Treatment
Antibodies of the IgE class are the least abundant circulating antibodies in the serum as well as the major antibodies involved in the immune response against parasitic infections. Beside its physiologic role, IgE is well known as the key factor of the allergic reactions. The levels of IgE antibody is significantly increased in the invasion of parasites, especially in helminth infections, which is caused by interference with the regulation of antibody production by Th cells. IgE can also bind to two different cellular receptors (FcεRI and FcεRII). FcεRI is abundantly expressed on human mast cells (MC) and basophils, while FcεRII is mainly expressed on granulocytes and lymphocytes. IgE involves in antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) responses by binding to these functional receptors and releasing mediators from mast cells. FcεRII participates in the destruction of parasites by eosinophils via the ADCC mechanism and plays a role in the regulation of IgE synthesis.
Non-IgG Antibodies Therapeutic Effects on Infectious Diseases Services in Creative Biolabs
Therapeutic antibodies, mainly monoclonal antibodies, nowadays are a promising part of newly introduced drugs and gain favorable effects in the treatment of tumors and infectious diseases. As a senior biological company dedicated to antibody development and human health, Creative Biolabs concentrates all efforts to provide the best and customized solutions and services about the non-IgG antibodies against many types of infectious diseases including but not limited to:
Research on non-IgG antibodies applied for the treatment of infectious diseases is inseparable from relevant support and services. In order to supply better service to customers, Creative Biolabs has developed professional and comprehensive non-IgG antibody platforms and service system aiming to offer the most diversified products and services to global clients. Please feel free to contact us for more details. Our scientists are pleased to tailor the best-fit proposal to meet your specific demands.
!! For Research Use Only. Our products and services are NOT intended for diagnostic or therapeutic applications.