In recent years, non-IgG antibodies have gained significant importance in diagnostic and therapeutic applications with their inherent advantages. Creative Biolabs is one of the well-recognized experts who are professional in applying advanced platforms for non-IgG therapeutic antibodies research. Armed with extensive experience and professional scientists, we provide a series of non-IgG antibodies development services, mainly including IgM, IgA, and IgE therapeutic antibodies, to deliver superior clinical performance.
Brief Introduction of HIV Infection
HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection is the immediate cause of human acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), which is a chronic, potentially life-threatening condition. People suffering from AIDS may present a long incubation period without any symptoms or may experience a brief period of influenza-like illness. As time goes on, HIV will gradually damage the body's immune system, specifically the CD4⁺ T cells, making it harder and harder to fight off other infections and certain types of cancers. Eventually, patients die from various pathogen infections and cancers.
Unfortunately, no effective cure currently exists for HIV. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is recommended to reduce a person’s viral load to an undetectable level and to decrease the risk of HIV transmission. People with ART need to take a combination of HIV medicines (called an HIV treatment regimen) every day and may experience severe side effects. Therefore, it is urgent to develop effective HIV therapies or innovative drugs with small side effects. Ibalizumab is a kind of humanized IgG4 monoclonal antibody that displays a promising efficacy on AIDS patients by binding to the CD4 receptor on the surface of T-cells and thereby preventing the virus from entering cells. Additionally, non-IgG therapeutic antibodies, mainly IgA and IgM antibodies, have attracted numerous attention in the pharmaceutical field worldwide.
IgA Antibodies for HIV Infection
IgA isotype antibodies are a key line of defense against pathogen invasion, which generally function as dimers (dIgA) through covalent binding of IgA1 and IgA2 subclass. The mucosal IgA antibodies are produced by subepithelial plasma cells and transported across the epithelial layer into the lumen. They are shown to play a potential role in the protection by direct neutralization, immune exclusion, or inhibition of transcytosis. Low levels of HIV-specific IgA have been found in the genital tract and plasma of the majority of HIV-positive subjects, where it is believed to mediate mucosal immunity. Moreover, levels of non-specific IgA in plasma were elevated in every stage of HIV infection, which suggested that anti-HIV IgA antibodies probably exerted pivotal actions in HIV infections. Among these mucosal IgA, IgA antibody specific to gp41 has been shown to play critical functional roles in HIV inhibition in non-human primates. Therefore, IgA antibodies may be promising immunotherapy because of the important functional role in protection against HIV infection.
Fig.1 Mucosal defenses by dimeric IgA (dIgA) or secretory IgA (SIgA) against HIV/simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV). (Kulkarni, 2017)
IgM Antibodies for HIV Infection
IgM isotype is the first antibody produced by the body to fight a new infection (such as HIV), and it is mainly found in the blood and lymph fluid. Dr. Ruprecht has set off a wave in evaluating the activity of IgM antibodies in neutralizing HIV-1 and reveals for the first time the protective potential of mucosal anti-HIV-1 IgM. The IgM antibodies show a five-times higher affinity for their targets and will “grab” them very quickly. Subsequently, IgM clumps up the virus to inhibit it cross the mucosal barrier and prevent its spread to the rest of the body. This innovative achievement shows the protective potential of mucosal anti-HIV-1 IgM, which can work alone or in combination as a prevention and treatment method of HIV infection.
Fig.2 Dysregulation of systemic and mucosal humoral responses to microbial antigens in HIV-1-infected individuals. (Hel, 2017)
Advantages of Our Services:
- Advanced biotechnologies and extensive experience;
- Fully customizable experimental design to meet specific demands;
- High-quality products with stronger affinity and enhanced complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC);
- Competitive price and best after-sale service.
Creative Biolabs is a pioneer in the development of non-IgG antibodies. In addition to IgG monoclonal antibodies, we are pleased to utilize our extensive experience and advanced platform to offer a diversified portfolio of non-IgG antibody products and the best service for various applications. If you are interested in our services, please do not hesitate to contact us for more details or a quote.
- Kulkarni, V.; Ruprecht, R.M. Mucosal IgA Responses: Damaged in Established HIV Infection-Yet, Effective Weapon against HIV Transmission. Frontiers in immunology. 2017, 8: 1581.
- Hel, Z.; et al. Dysregulation of systemic and mucosal humoral responses to microbial and food antigens as a factor contributing to microbial translocation and chronic inflammation in HIV-1 infection. PLoS pathogens. 2017, 13(1): e1006087.
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