IgY in Immunological Detection and Diagnosis
Chicken IgY antibodies are superior alternatives to mammalian antibodies for several reasons. The method of isolation of IgY is non-invasive, as it is isolated from eggs rather than blood, which meets the requirements of animal welfare. The yield of IgY is high (1~2.8g chicken IgY/month) compared to mammalian antibodies (0.2g rabbit IgG/month). Further, compared to IgG, IgY is more stable at high temperatures, different pH conditions and has low cross-reaction with other receptors. Moreover, it does not activate the complement system nor does it interact with the rheumatoid factor. IgY antibody has been widely used in the detection of viruses, cancer, parasite, and chemical contaminants. It has therapeutic applications as well. IgY is usually used to treat rotavirus, allergic asthma, alimentary tract diseases, etc. Chicken IgY antibodies have been widely used in vitro immunological detection and diagnosis.
Fig.1 Schematic representation of the main parts comprising the original IgY technology. (Karachaliou, 2021)
ELISA is a heterogeneous assay technique and the most widely used immunoassay. With the development of the IgY technique, an increasing number of reports on IgY for ELISA are available as a result of in-depth IgY studies. In a previous report, researchers developed IgY antibody-based ELISA to evaluate Gent/Kana residue. Briefly, full antigens of gentamicin (Gent) and kanamycin (Kana) were used to immunize the laying chickens to prepare IgY antibodies. Then, these antibodies were evaluated by IgY-based ELISA to detect Gent/Kana in animal-derived samples. In another report, a coproantigen sandwich ELISA using recombinant O. viverrini cathepsin F (rOv-CF) was developed. The sandwich ELISA using rOv-CF IgY-based coproantigen detection is facile and indeed more convenient than fecal egg examination. Measurement of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentrations remains one of the leading methods for diagnosing prostate cancer. It has also been reported that the developed IgY-based ELISA represents an alternative method to commercial ELISA for determining the PSA serum concentration that could be used as an alternative to commercially available in vitro diagnostic assays that rely on mouse monoclonal IgG.
Services at Creative Biolabs
According to previous reports, it is obvious that IgY-based ELISA has a broad potential to be applied in many fields. Creative Biolabs has been wording on non-IgG antibodies over years and has established a comprehensive technology platform. With extensive experience accumulated from practice, our platform is capable of providing high-quality non-IgG-based services including but not limited to:
- Non-IgG Antibody Discovery
- Non-IgG Antibody Engineering
- Non-IgG Antibody Production and Purification
- Non-IgG Antibody Characterization
- Non-IgG Antibody PK/PD Evaluation
- Non-IgG Antibody Developability Improvement
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- Karachaliou, C. E.; et al. IgY technology: Methods for developing and evaluating avian immunoglobulins for the in vitro detection of biomolecules. World J Methodol. 2021, 11(5): 243-262.
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