As a leader and expert in the field of non-IgG therapeutic antibody development, Creative Biolabs is able to provide state-of-art technologies to meet any requirement of our customers. We have successfully completed a series of challenges in the past years. In particular, we have established advanced non-IgG antibodies (mainly IgA, IgM, and IgE) based therapeutic antibodies discovery platform which enables us to offer a series of high-quality therapeutic IgM antibody discovery services for the diagnosis of a full range of diseases.
Introduction to IgM Antibodies
The immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody is the largest isotype in the five immunoglobulins and has a unique μ-heavy chain. In general, the monomeric IgM antibody is made up of five or six domains, and each domain consists of two heavy (H) chains and two light (L) chains. It is usually produced by the monomer bound by the B cell membrane and the secreted pentamer. IgM antibodies cannot pass through the placenta because of their sizes but they can firstly activate an immune response against infection due to rapidly binding to the specific antigens. Meanwhile, recent studies demonstrate that the IgM antibody plays a critical role in mediating B cell activation and the activation of the classical pathway of the complement system. It is also related to the blood-clotting reaction and the primary immune response on red blood cells. Furthermore, IgM can be largely produced when the antigen firstly invades the immune system. The ratio of IgG to IgM is negatively correlated which could be a standard of measurement for evaluating the infection condition. IgM antibody has been regarded as an important detection tool and potential therapeutic molecule both in laboratory and clinical applications.
Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of an (IgM) antibody pentamer and hexamer. (Keyt, 2020)
Therapeutic Effect of IgM Antibodies
In addition to natural protective effect in the immune system, other potential roles and properties of IgM antibody, such as apoptotic and altered cell clearance, inflammation inhibition, autoreactive antibody regulation, etc., recently have been highlighted by extensive investigations. Recent studies have revealed that the IgM antibody can be used as an early diagnostic tool for a number of diseases, including cancers, infections, and other related diseases. It is noted that IgM antibody has been confirmed to play a significant role in the early recognition, elimination, and removal of several tumor-associated cells. In addition, researchers have shown the IgM antibodies eliminate tumor cells by a number of mechanisms, for instance, cell apoptosis and complement pathway. Therefore, a variety of IgM monoclonal antibodies have been generated and widely used in the diagnosis of several carcinomas, such as monoclonal IgM antibody PAM-1, FC-2.15, natural IgM antibody SC-1, as well as natural IgM antibody SAM-6.
In Creative Biolabs, we have generated a series of IgM antibodies against different targets for a wide variety of disease indications, including but not limited to tumors, infections, and inflammations. All the IgM antibodies have been validated for use in a panel of technology platforms, such as Western Blotting, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and lateral flow assay (LFA).
Fig.2 Immunohistochemical staining of antibodies SAM-1 to SAM-4 on different carcinomas. (Brändlein, 2003)
As one of the top CROs in the field of antibodies development for disease therapy, Creative Biolabs has focused on non-IgG antibodies discovery for years and has successfully accomplished numerous challenging projects in this field. We can offer high-quality target construction and custom services for our clients. If you are interested in our services, please contact us or send us an inquiry.
- Keyt, B.A.; et al. Structure, Function, and Therapeutic Use of IgM Antibodies. Antibodies (Basel). 2020, 9(4): 53.
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