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Non-IgG in Autoimmune Diseases: Pathogenic Contributors or Protective Allies?

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Autoimmune Diseases and Non-IgG Antibody

Autoimmune diseases are conditions in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks its own cells and organs. To understand autoimmunity, it is vital to understand the role of antibodies. Usually, antibodies are proteins produced by the body to combat invaders such as viruses and bacteria. But, in autoimmunity, the body produces antibodies that target its own cells. The most well-known among these antibodies are those in the Immunoglobulin G (IgG) category, which have been mainly implicated in to the development and progression of autoimmune diseases. However, the role of non-IgG antibodies remains largely unexplored. This article aims to demystify the role of non-IgG antibodies in autoimmune diseases.

Immunoglobulins with non-canonical functions in inflammatory and autoimmune disease states.Immunoglobulins with non-canonical functions in inflammatory and autoimmune disease states. (Ermakov, 2020)

Double-Sided Role of Non-IgG in Autoimmune Diseases

Non-IgG antibodies encompass a broad range of other proteins, such as Immunoglobulin A (IgA), Immunoglobulin M (IgM), and Immunoglobulin E (IgE). Although these antibodies comprise a smaller proportion of the immunoglobulins found in the human body, emerging research suggests that they may have a significant role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Several studies have found elevated levels of IgA and IgM in patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and multiple sclerosis. These antibodies, particularly IgM, are known to exert an immune-regulatory function, dampening the activity of the immune system. From this viewpoint, it appears that the increase in non-IgG antibodies is a defensive response designed to counteract the harmful effects of autoimmunity. Interestingly, the protective role of non-IgG antibodies is also evident in their ability to form immune complexes. These complexes can deactivate rogue IgG antibodies, thereby preventing the immune system from attacking the body's own cells. Although this process can sometimes go awry leading to inflammation and organ damage, the overall action of non-IgG antibodies is to protect the body from autoimmune flares.

However, the non-IgG antibody role is not strictly protective. In conditions like celiac disease, IgA antibodies target gluten proteins, leading to intestinal inflammation. The discovery of these harmful non-IgG antibodies has opened up new treatment avenues for autoimmunity. By selectively targeting and neutralizing harmful antibodies, it may be possible to treat autoimmune conditions without the need for broad immunosuppression. The role of non-IgG antibodies in autoimmune diseases is an area that holds a lot of potentials. On one hand, the presence of these antibodies signifies the body's attempt to regulate its immune response and defend itself against self-attack. On the other hand, these antibodies can be used as targets for new, more specific therapies.

Clinical Value of Non-IgG in Autoimmune Diseases

From a clinical perspective, the measurement of non-IgG antibodies could provide valuable information for the diagnosis and monitoring of autoimmune diseases. Their levels could be a reflection of the disease activity and could help guide treatment decisions. However, more extensive research is needed to fully elucidate the specific mechanisms and roles of different non-IgG antibodies in autoimmune diseases. By conducting more thorough studies, researchers could potentially hone in on specific pathways in the immune system that can be modified to treat autoimmune diseases effectively.

In conclusion, non-IgG antibodies in autoimmune diseases can be perpetrators and protectors. They play an intriguing dual role in either exacerbating the disease pathology or assisting in its protection. The dichotomy of their function paints a complex picture of autoimmunity and begs further exploration. Unraveling this intricate network of responses promises to open novel approaches to managing autoimmune diseases, bringing us one step closer to the ultimate goal of curing them. Experienced scientists at Creative Biolabs have built a professional non-IgG antibody research platform to provide customized high-quality non-IgG antibody products and one-stop custom services for diverse therapeutic applications. If you have any related needs, please feel free to contact us for more information.


  1. Ermakov, E.A., Nevinsky; et al. Immunoglobulins with Non-Canonical Functions in Inflammatory and Autoimmune Disease States. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(15): 5392.

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