Creative Biolabs offers various customized non-IgG antibodies development services. We can produce antibodies of the corresponding scale for diagnostic industries. Based on our advanced technologies, such as epitope prediction, peptide synthesis, and protein expression, Creative Biolabs focuses on assisting in the advancement of antibodies.
IgG is the key antibody component in serum and extracellular fluid. It is a four-chain monomer and accounts for 75% of the total serum Ig. IgG plays a critical role in activating complement and neutralizing a variety of toxins in the immune response. IgG antibodies have a long duration. It is worth noting that IgG antibodies are the only antibodies that can pass through the placenta to protect the fetus during pregnancy. Moreover, they are also secreted from the mammary glands into the colostrum, so that the newborn is protected by antibodies for the first time.
Common Non-IgG Antibodies
Besides IgG antibodies, some non-IgG antibodies also play increasingly important roles in immunity and diseases. Common non-IgG antibodies include: IgA antibody, IgD antibody, IgE antibody, IgM antibody, IgY antibody. In recent years, these antibodies have gradually become new hotspots in basic research, antibody production, and clinical applications.
Non-IgG Antibodies from Other Species
Most mammals have five main immunoglobulin isotypes: IgM, IgD, IgG, IgA, and IgE. However, unique immunoglobulin isotypes and structures also exist in other species.
IgW is found in cartilaginous fish and is homologous to IgD of other vertebrates. IgW is one of the oldest isoforms in Igs. It is worth mentioning that there is good evidence for an unusual form of class-switching recombination between IgM and IgW.
In addition to classical antibodies, sharks also produce a unique immunoglobulin neoantigen receptor (IgNAR). IgNAR antibodies are homodimeric proteins composed of heavy chains, each with an antigen-binding domain at the end of each chain. Notably, antigen binding is mediated only by a single domain, called vNAR. Due to their high affinity and specificity as well as their small size and perfect stability, IgNAR antibodies are emerging as a promising diagnostic and research tool.
Fig.1 Structure of the types of antibodies found in camelids. (Alcivar, 2021)
IgT (also called IgZ) is an antibody isotype in some teleost species, and three subclasses may exist in some hosts: IgT1, IgT2, and IgT3, all of which are expressed at different levels. Furthermore, IgT antibodies are present in internal organs and surfaces, and the IgT in the larval mucus layer may play a protective role. Studies have shown that IgT is involved in the protection of several fish surfaces and is considered to be one of the important components involved in adaptive immunity.
Heavy chain only antibodies (HCAbs) are naturally produced in camelid species. These antibodies are dimers without light chains, and their antigen-recognition regions are formed only by VHH regions called single-domain antibody fragments. This fragment is relatively stable and can be produced in high yields in prokaryotic systems. Camelid VHHs have long complementarity-determining regions and are able to recognize and bind with high-affinity epitopes that are not recognized by conventional antibodies. Because of these beneficial properties, VHHs have been used in a range of biotechnological applications, including diagnostics, therapeutics, and basic research. VHHs are also effective in preventing viral entry into host cells.
With our advanced technology platform and dedicated scientists, Creative Biolabs can provide numerous non-IgG antibodies related services. Please contact us for more details.
- Alcivar, E. I. M.; Avilés, M. S. G. Study review of camelid and shark antibodies for biomedical and biotechnological applications. Revista Bionatura. 2021, 2331-2340.
!! For Research Use Only. Our products and services are NOT intended for diagnostic or therapeutic applications.