Therapeutic antibodies have attracted rapidly increasing attention. As a service provider for the development of non-IgG antibodies, Creative Biolabs focuses on the production of various forms of recombinant IgM antibodies and can provide our customers with fast and effective in vitro diagnostic antibody products and services.
Introduction of IgM Antibody
IgM, also known as immunoglobulin M, is the first form of immunoglobulin expressed during the development of B cells in the primary immune response, mainly in blood and lymph. IgM can attack a variety of antigens and is also closely related to many primary humoral immune responses. In addition, IgM is the largest form of antibody produced by the vertebrate immune system, and it usually appears in the form of a pentamer. At the same time, IgM is the first antibody that appears in the reaction of initial exposure to the antigen.
Structure of IgM
IgM consists of two identical heavy chains (μ) and two light chains (κ or λ). Each chain can be divided into two regions: variable and constant region. IgM has two main forms: pentamer and hexamer, and only the pentamer form has a single J chain. The presence of the J chain in pentamer allows it to bind to polymeric Ig receptors. In general, the pentameric IgM seems to have an asymmetric structure, with an antigen-binding surface and a non-antigen-binding surface, which indicates that ten V regions may only result in five pentameric forms. On the other hand, the hexameric form appears to be a planar molecule in which all V regions can be used to bind antigen.
Fig.1 IgM pentamer. (Shade, 2013)
Functions of IgM
It is usually found that IgM in normal serum binds to specific antigens, even without pre-immunization, so IgM is often called a natural antibody. What's more, IgM also plays a role in the complement pathway. It can bind to the complement component C1 and activate the classical pathway, leading to the opsonization of antigens and cell lysis. It is worth mentioning that IgM antibodies are closely related to the aggregation of red blood cells during blood transfusions with incompatible blood types. The most important thing is that some studies have demonstrated that recombinant IgM antibodies have the potential as therapeutic agents for cancer immunotherapy.
Many efforts have been devoted to researching rapid and accurate new coronavirus disease (COVID-19) diagnosis strategies to quickly identify target populations, prevent the spread of the virus. A fast and simple IgG-IgM combined antibody test kit was developed. This method can simultaneously detect IgM and IgG antibodies against specific viruses in human blood in a short time so that patients at different stages of infection can be identified. Moreover, compared with single IgM or IgG detection, this detection has better practicality and sensitivity. Compared with traditional PCR detection, this new diagnostic strategy has several advantages: it saves time and does not require equipment; it is simple to operate and requires minimal training; it can be carried out in different places. In summary, the rapid detection of IgM and IgG antibodies will provide an optimistic direction for the diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19 disease.
After decades of accumulation, we have successfully created an IgM platform. We aim to develop engineered therapeutic antibodies based on the inherent characteristics of IgM antibodies. As an industry leader focusing on customized services, Creative Biolabs has been equipped to provide high-quality IgM-related services to customers around the world. If you are interested in our services, please contact us in time for more details.
- Shade, K. T. C.; Anthony, R. M. Antibody glycosylation and inflammation. Antibodies. 2013, 2 (3): 392-414.
!! For Research Use Only. Our products and services are NOT intended for diagnostic or therapeutic applications.