First characterized in 1967, IgE is the immunoglobulin responsible for the initiation of type I hypersensitivity reactions. Allergic disorders, including asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, and food allergy, represent significant health and socioeconomic burden. In the United States, there are more than 2 million emergency patients and 500,000 inpatients every year for asthma alone. Allergic diseases have attracted widespread attention, and many pharmaceutical companies are actively developing drugs to relieve allergic diseases.
IgE Related Therapy
An increased prevalence of allergic diseases worldwide has heralded a renewed interest in research in the prevention and treatment of asthma and allergic rhinitis. Although therapeutic modalities such as antihistamines, inhaled steroids, and antileukotrienes demonstrate some effectiveness in ameliorating allergy symptoms, a significant number of patients with allergy still experience daily discomfort. Therapies that more effectively block the effects of IgE hold promise for preventing symptoms caused by allergic reactions. In genetically predisposed individuals, the inhalation of allergens (such as animal dander, grass, or weed pollens) stimulates a unique immunologic response, ending in the production of allergen-specific IgE by B cells and plasma cells. Once released, free IgE enters the bloodstream, where it binds to mast cells and basophils by means of high-affinity cell surface receptors (FceRI). Basophil and mast cell degranulation occurs when specific allergen molecules cross-link between the two adjacent IgE molecules on the cell surface. Such degranulation results in the release of mediators and cytokines that bring about the pathophysiologic consequences and symptoms of allergic diseases, such as asthma, rhinitis, and food allergy. Over the last decades, the field of anti-IgE biologicals has advanced into a competitive and active field of investigation. Different companies and research institutions are currently assessing approaches to specifically target IgE in pre-clinical studies or clinical trials.
Fig 1. The allergic cascade. (Brownell, 2004)
IgE Targeted Therapy for Allergic Diseases
Many pharmaceutical companies are very interested in IgE-targeted therapy drugs, and have developed a number of safe, effective and convenient drugs that affect the activity of molecular IgE to alleviate allergic diseases. Its mechanism of action is as follows.
- Neutralizing IgE in blood
- IgE effector cell inhibition
- Targeting IgE+ B cells
It inhibits allergen-induced early/late allergic responses by specifically binding to free IgE in serum and preventing it from binding to receptors on target cells.
Reducing the number of effector cells reduces the material basis of the allergic reaction and can inhibit the basic development of the allergic reaction.
IgE+ B cells are critical for controlling IgE production. Both transient IgE secreted by plasmablasts in blood and long-living IgE secreted by plasma cells in bone marrow are influenced by IgE+ B cells.
Fig.2 Scheme of anti-IgE therapy strategies for IgE-mediated allergic diseases. (Hu, 2018)
Services at Creative Biolabs
Since the identification of IgE as major stimuli in the inflammatory cascade, the development of agents to target IgE has thrived, which has proven to be a successful approach to IgE-related diseases. To date, the anti-IgE biologics field has been dominated by monoclonal antibody approaches. Classical anti-IgE methods for neutralizing IgE using fully-humanized monoclonal antibodies have produced potent IgE inhibitors. Creative Biolabs has extensive experience in the field of antibodies, providing a range of services including antibody discovery, production, purification, characterization and evaluation. With a professional technical team and mature experimental equipment, we will greatly promote the progress of your research. If you have any questions about our services, please contact us and we will provide you with detailed explanations.
- Brownell, J.; Casale, T. B. Anti-IgE therapy. Immunology and allergy clinics of North America. 2004, 24(4): 551–v.
- Hu, J.; et al. Anti-IgE therapy for IgE-mediated allergic diseases: from neutralizing IgE antibodies to eliminating IgE+ B cells. Clinical and translational allergy. 2018, 8, 27.
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